Karla Rubio, Estefani Y. Hernández-Cruz, Diana G. Rogel-Ayala, Pouya Sarvari, Ciro Isidoro, Guillermo Barreto and José Pedraza-Chaverri
Nutriepigenomics in Environmental-Associated Oxidative Stress.
Complex molecular mechanisms define our responses to environmental stimuli. Beyond the DNA sequence itself, epigenetic machinery orchestrates changes in gene expression induced by diet, physical activity, stress and pollution, among others. Importantly, nutrition has a strong impact on epigenetic players and, consequently, sustains a promising role in the regulation of cellular responses such as oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is a natural physiological process where the presence of reactive oxygen-derived species and nitrogen-derived species overcomes the uptake strategy of antioxidant defenses, it plays an essential role in epigenetic changes induced by environmental pollutants and culminates in signaling the disruption of redox control. In this review, we present an update on epigenetic mechanisms induced by environmental factors that lead to oxidative stress and potentially to pathogenesis and disease progression in humans. In addition, we introduce the microenvironment factors (physical contacts, nutrients, extracellular vesicle-mediated communication) that influence the epigenetic regulation of cellular responses. Understanding the mechanisms by which nutrients influence the epigenome, and thus global transcription, is crucial for future early diagnostic and therapeutic efforts in the field of environmental medicine.